Anne King of Sudbury Mitochondrial Lineage



Assorted photos of Raymond line ancestors (great grandmother, great-great grandmother, 3x great grandfather (chain

of 1st cousin marriages in straight maternal line), and a cousin),  Palestinians and Italians from "Nativity Story", a

West Country man from from Robin McKie, The Face of Britain, and a drawing of a medieval English village woman

(theme from Nativity Story)

This is my maternal lineage.   Dora Smith (me), Kathleen Lowe, Helen Readio, Marion Frances Raymond, Almira Raymond, Tabitha Walker, Lucy Raymond, Mercy Davis, Mary Hubbard, Hannah Rice, Elizabeth King, Anne the wife of Thomas King of Sudbury, Massachusetts, who was from Shaftesbury, Dorset, England.   Whether Anne was also from Shaftesbury, or some or all of their older children were born there is not known.    Thomas's brother Peter, mayor of Shaftesbury, who had prospered in the textile industry, left a copy of the marriage contract of his son to the daughter of a family of similar socioeconomic status who lived 30 miles from Shaftesbury, in Somerset.  Several identities have been attributed to Anne King, most lately Anne Tyce, but these identities have been proven to belong to other people.   They arrived in Sudbury by 1642.   It is not proven whether she is the mother of all of Thomas's children.   Thomas's brother, Peter, was mayor of Shaftesbury.   Thomas was prosperous and held public office in Sudbury.   Three of his five daughters married three of the eight sons of Edmund Rice, who was one of the founders and leaders of Sudbury, not upper class, but wealthy and ambitious, and one of those people that nearly everyone with ancestry in colonial Massachusetts is descended from.   I have traced six or seven hundred maternal line descendants of Anne King, at .    If all five girls were Anne's daughters, descendants of these people would all have the same mitochondrial DNA.

I had my complete mitochondrial DNA sequence done at Family Tree DNA, after Argus rather made a mess of it.   Since then SMGF has also done HVR1 and HVR2, and 23andMe did their own deep clade testing, all with consistent results.    Also, Argus eventually agreed with Family Tree DNA's findings, and never genuinely disagreed with them.    All female line relatives of mine will have the same mitochondrial DNA, possibly with more or less C's at 309.   At HVR1 and HVR2, my haplotype is 16519C, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C.   This haplotype, plus or minus an extra C at 309, is shared by half the members of most of the largest clades of haplogroup H, and is sometimes found in haplogroup HV, haplogroup V, and haplogroup U.   I have many hundreds of matches in every mtdna database.   Most are not related to me since 8,000 BC.    

I am haplogroup H1, which is defined by two coding region mutations.  I have two coding region mutations that until last year were so far only found in my mitochondrial lineage; these are 5309 C --> G, and 4763 C --> A.    These are mutations to the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 protein.   This huge protein and its subunits is part of the mitochondrial mechanism that carries out most energy production for cells.   Subunit 2 also has other functions, and both subunit 2 and NADH-D make oxidative and anti-oxidative byproducts, in varying amounts and balance depending on specific genetic mutations, that can affect health, other physical functions, and length of life.   Its other names are ubiquinone reductase or Complex I.   Ubiquinone is the enzyme people often take to protect mitochondrial and heart function and blood vessel lining.  This mitochondrial lineage is characteristically long lived, usually 80's or 90's, occasionally over 100, but may possibly have a marked tendency to cerebral atherosclerosis.   Like with all genes for that problem it seems to matter hugely how people lived and how much they weighed, when that happened.    One guy who lived to be over 100 was still walking atleast a mile a day to visit friends, and also attributed his long life to sound diet.  

Haplogroup H itself gives people half the risk of dying of sepsis relative to everyone else.    The reason appears to be a failure to go into septic shock and experience organ shutdown as readily as other people.   Studies of graveyards and other remains show that haplogroup H has gained ground steadily, relative to other haplogroups, since the Neolithic, and it is now 50% of the population of western Europe.   H1 is 40% of that, and is dispersed across Europe, western Asia and the Middle East, being most concentrated in western Europe.   

I submitted my mitochondrial sequence to Genbank jointly with Family Tree DNA, since this is the only real way to enable other people to find it.   I also gave permission for Family Tree DNA to use it for research on population genetics.   Thus, my sequence has a place in the new phylo tree by a group of scientists who are doing much of the current work on the history and distribution of mitochondrial DNA clades.   As the cost of mitochondrial DNA sequences comes down and more of them are done this science is evolving rapidly and could change by next year.   My place in this tree is H1am1.   I have a partial match; H1am has C4763a.      

After writing this whole page, I learned that it is possible to determine that the H1am person is in Finland.     This raises several possibilities.

1. It's a complete accident.   The mutation happened twice.   I don't know if I've seen a whole lot of that happening.   However, H1 is young and seems to have nearly complete variation.

2.  The common mutation is very old and travelled in two directions; one went north toward the steppes and Finland, the other travelled the Mediterranean route of Neolithic migration to England.

3.  A little more likely; the mutation isn't that old and it took the northerly route of Neolithic migration, via central Europe and/ or the Rhineland.   Current genetic anthropologists would suggests this is more probable than that they came from Spain.   Huge numbers of Neolithic people poured into Great Britain from Germany, and almost everyone who went to Great Britain populated southern England most heavily.   Later, the Celts and the Saxons each densely populated southern England.   

4.   The mutation could be as little as several thousand years old, which makes sense in the overall scheme of things, and the common ancestor lived on the Eurasian steppes.   Our line descends from Indo-European steppe people.    They made major incursions into central Europe and into Scandinavia.   The shaft hole battle axe peoples reached the northwestern coast of Europe and into Denmark.   The Celts descend from this influx.   In Roman times, Germanic peoples migrated through their territory, and then westward, though I'm not familiar with any of them subsequently migrating in any numbers to Great Britain.   There will always be those with mythical notions of the origin of the name Alan, however.    I think a small group did end up in Brittany.   

5.   This is a steadily developing story.   After I wrote all of this, I learned about the new theory of the origin of Y DNA haplogroup I1.    See my history of Y DNA I2b1a1, about a quarter of the way down the page, under haplogroup I, for a discussion.   In a nutshell, the Elshanka culture of the Ural region of central Asia of 7000 BC, migrated to a region northwest of the Black Sea by 6200 BC, bringing the language and the technology of the people of eastern Asia.   They were an unsually successful Mesolithic culture.   Mesolithic people thrived in Neolithic Europe only under select circumstances, and these people kept finding them.   They did not themselves raise crops, but benefitted from the general popoulation explosion in that region.    They had an early east Asian pottery, and they could be the source of the central/ northwest European Neolithic house design.   They were hunters and gatherers but doing well enough to sometimes establish permanent villages.   They migrated northwest across Europe, and settled in three regions, where they gave rise to three branches of haplogroup I1, and two late Mesolithic hunting and gathering cultures.   Hunting and gathering hung on in the far north for a long time.   These people carried teh Uralic language family and were ancestral to the Lapps and the Finns.   On the 23andMe H1 group, is a report of the distribution of mitochondrial haplogroup H1g; found among the Druze of Lebanon, the Lapps of Norway, and an indigenous people of Japan.   So far, my haplogroup H1am is found in Finland and southern England.   One branch of the I1 migration gave rise to the Ertebolle culture of Denmark, which evolved into the Germanic peoples, and a much smaller branch was established on the Rhine River just east of the coast, in the lowlands.  All these people had to do to get to southern England was follow the Celtic and Saxon migrations to England.   

At the bottom of the page below is a short discussion of the northwestern route of the Neolithic migration and the Indo-Europeans.   This theory of the spread of haplogroup I1 and some haplogroup H subclades, is not about the Indo-European migration, but about a late Mesolithic Uralic-speaking migration.   Assuming that the partial mitochondrial dna match is not an accident, this clade could easily have followed either route of migration to Finland and England.   

Our line didn't spend the last ice age in Spain - they came from the East

By one route or the other, but when I wrote this I was thinking by way of the Mediterranean and Spain.   They may have travelled by the long route, not the short one, and they may have walked and used horses and/or a cart, and not a boat.   

As late as 2008 it was commonly believed that haplogroups H1 and H3 were the haplogroups of people who spent the ice age in the refugium in northern Spain and southern France.    It was believed that the Basques, a long isolated population of that area with their own non-Indo-European language, were descended from the Paleolithic population of the area.   

As early as 2005 Internet discussion expressed problems with this idea.    H1 and H3 came from the Middle East or southwest Asia, not Spain.   There was comment that it is believed to have followed the same path of migration as R1b1a2.    Nevertheless the general theory held up as long as the age of H1 and H3 predated the last ice age, meaning it could have crossed Europe, and R1b1a2 was also believed to date to before the last ice age and to have undergone a founder effect in Spain at the end of the last ice age.

Over the past several years, however, the whole thing has fallen apart.

First, the Basques are not only H1 and H3.   They have appreciable amounts of eastern haplogroups, and also appreciable amounts of haplogroup U, which is known to be Paleolithic in age.   However, as studies expanded it became clear that the Basques are genetically very similar to people on some of the larger Mediterranean islands, especially Sardinia.   What is more the Basques have language features in common with Sardinia.    

Archeology set the beginning and spread of the Neolithic back.   The Neolithic is now known to have spread across Europe in two branches, between 6,000 BC and 5500 BC.     One branch migrated along the Mediterranean, around the coast of Spain, and then between the coasts of England and Ireland.   They were expert sailors in large dugout canoes capable of spending a day or two at sea.   The other branch went up the river valleys through Central Europe, from the Ukraine region.   Both branches began in eastern Europe.   

R1b1a2 turns out to only date to the Neolithic.  The first clue was really its vastly greater variation in eastern Europe and southwestern Asia.   It moved across Europe in a clinal pattern, dropping local founder effects as it went.   It is more common today in western Europe because the Paleolithic population was sparse in western Europe, and the farmers had a tremendous demographic advantage.  The farmers demographically overwhelmed the Paleolithic farmers.   Paleolithic Y DNA clades like the ancestors of I1, and haplogroup N, hung on in Scandinavia.   

Along with the genetics, we know that the Neolithic was spread by moving people and not merely moving technology, because they took their characteristic way of life, including way of building cottages, with them, and it was always 50 years behind the times along the central European path of migration.  Along the Mediterranean, the travellers appear to have carried the entire Megalithic mode of building and social organization.    

The northern wave of the Neolithic migration, into central and northwestern Europe, spread among other things the gene for the ability to tolerate lactose.   This was clearly a moving or spreading population and not merely spreading cows.   

Studies also find very dramatic mitochondrial genetic continuity along the Mediterranean coast and in coastal Spain and the Pyrrenees, and on up the western coast of England, and a good deal of Y DNA continuity.   

Two 2012 papers by Behar et al continue to insist that H1 and H3 sheltered in Spain after the ice age and expanded rapidly out of Spain at the end of the ice age, and that the Basques are evidence of this.   Their discussion overlooks the entire Neolithic migration, insisting that the next mass migration in Europe after the Magdalenian was the Indo-Europeans.   

Their insistence on this falls apart most dramatically over their new calculations of the age of haplogroup H1.   They show haplogroup H1 to be only 10,000 years old, give or take a couple of thousand years.   They don't have haplogroup H itself predating the beginning of the end of the last ice age.    Haplogroup H was born in southwestern Europe.   Haplogroup H1 was born there or in the Middle East.   Both are still common in southwestesrn Asia.   Nobody did much migrating across Europe during the height of the last ice age.    If H1 only dates to 8,000 BC, give or take a thousand years or so, it crossed Europe with the Neolithic farmers.    So the movement of H1 and H3 did parallel that of R1b1a2.    

And, my maternal line ancestors came from southwestern Europe or the Middle East, with the Neolithic.  They probably followed the Mediterranean route to Spain and then southwestern England.  This could be why they look Middle Eastern and Italian.(though it must be said that the Raymond line ancestry was concentrated in the West Country and came into my lines with the husband of Mercy Davis, and Thomas King himself was the only member of the Sudbury bunch not from East Anglia or Kent.  My great grandmother was descended from William Raymond and Mercy Davis three times through two first cousin marriages.)      

The following maps give a pretty good idea of what went on.    

First, Here is a map showing my West Country roots.   Bob Sweet is the man whose photo was shown in The Face of Britain.    The Raymonds actually settled along with an entire group of people mostly from the West Country, just north of Salem, Massachusetts.   I made a note of the fact that Cheddar Gorge, where several early men whose mitchondrial HVR1 region was typed, were found, is not far from Shaftesbury.   The earlier man from maybe 9,000 BC was 16519C, which Wells or Sykes put squarely in the middle of what he wasn't too clear, but that is consistent with R0 and HV as well as haplogroup H, and hardly only consistent with H1.   The later one was U5.   


Modern Basque territory is the tiny orange dot on the coast betwen Spain and France.  In ancient times it was somewhat larger and within the region of Neolithic settlement.

Different cultural/ migration subgroups of the European Neolithic; Farming and gold/ copper deposits in Europe, 5000 BC.   

Spread of Neolithic Impressed Ware

Dugout canoe of the Mediterranean Neolithic


Spread of Y DNA haplogroup J2 during the Neolithic                   Not large map of Neolithic migration in Europe.

Neolithic advance                                                        Frequency of Y Haplogroup R1b                     Genetic variation of R1b (greatest at origin)

The following map attempts to convince us that R1b1b2 was spread in Europe by the Magalenians (a pan-European culture that predates that last ice age) - by proving that R1b1b2 spread within the range of the western megalith culture. (map B)   Keep in mind that R1b1b2 (now R1b1a2) did not yet exist before the last ice age.   


Map on left shows mitochondrial genetic continuity along the Mediterranean route of spread of the Neolithic.   Map on right shows us

that the Y DNA of the region where the Neolithic began ended up concentrated in western Spain.    


Below are frequency maps of haplogroup H, showing its Asian distribution and origin, and of H1, showing its Asian origin an distribution (actually up to 30% around Caucasus Mountains) and H3, showing an essentially Mediterranean Neolithic route of migration.   These maps are actually from Achilli et al, Molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian Glacial Refuge was a major source for the European gene pool - hardly the only time people making that argument disprove their own case.    


Finally, here is a map of Doggerland.   England was cut off from mainland Europe about 8,000 BC.   From 8,000 BC to 6,000 BC probably smaller numbers of people entered Great Britain than before or after that date.    Before 8,000 BC there was probably substantial migration into Britain, but it didn't especially come from Spain.  I think the book page is from Face of Britain.   Doggerland was fertile forested lowland plain, with the Thames-Rhine at its center, which is why it is thought to have been a population center.    This center is thought, for instance by geneticists and authors Sykes and Oppenheimer, to be likely to have resembled the population of northwestern and central Europe at the time, which is thought to have migrated north and west beginning around 13,000 BC from the Balkan region, following large game.   Notice that anyone walking, or even paddling, from the south would have come up from northern France and the Flanders region, not the Basque region.   

David Miles, in The Tribes of Britain, says, "we have little or no genetic information about  the Mesolithic population of Britain, but archaeological evidence suggests links between Britain and north-western Europe, when both were part of a continuous land mass." (p. 29)  Both Miles and Oppenheimer, in The Origins of the British, point out that Great Britain genetically matches the Low Countries.   Oppenheimer argues that Great Britain's current clades, particularly in haplogroup I, have always been in Britain, but actually those clades are Neolithic and Bronze Age in age and came to Britain with various migrations during and after the Neolithic.   Both discount the amount of Neolithic migration from the Mediterranean, Spain and France.   Megalithic culture actually fully occupied western England and eastern Ireland, all the way to Scotland, where the attraction was mining metal.    

Hold it: atleast 25% of my Autosomal DNA IS Mediterranean

Before we give up on Neolithic ancestry, however, several Ancestry Painting projects that use 23andMe and Family Tree DNA family finder data, clearly show that the strong resemblance between our Raymond line and people of the Mediterranean and the Middle East is not an accident.   Between 25% and 33% of my Autosomal DNA is "Mediterranean" or "Mediterranean farmer" (the larger number); specifically, it matches SNP's found in the people of Sardinia, the Mediterranean island people who genetically match the Basques who were thought to be the main ancestors of the British.   

One model has some of them Eastern European.  

"North Atlantic" typically means Irish.  The "Eastern European" component becomes eastern forest zone in other models, such as Finnish or Ural-Volga.   

The methodology behind these models uses SNP's found in a number of specific studies of the genetic characteristics of samples, often from particular cities or regions.   Categories can historically overlap, so they are not mutually exclusive.   Also, it hasn't always been proven that traits found in specific places are not present in other places.    

This model suggests that the bulk of my autosomal DNA came from the north - the Baltic forest region (includes Finland and Latvia, consistent with Ural-Volga)

In this model, western Europe is Cornwall, and northern Europe is Lithuania, south of Finland.   Finland is also represented.

The Baltic/ Northern Hunter-Gatherer is explained below.    It is not consistent with haplogroup H1 in Finland, but it is consistent with haplogroup I1 in Scandinavia and the lowlands.   


The Indo-European Steppe Peoples

Here is the distribution of Y DNA Haplogroup R1a, an official Indo-European marker, characteristic of the Indo-European steppe people and common everywhere where they ended up, whose distribution roughly parallels that of mtdna haplogroup H2.   H2 is the 2nd most common haplogroup H subclade in Finland, and is more common in Eatern than Western Europe, yet includes the Celtic St. Luke motif, found from the Near East to Scotland, and is not rare in southern England.   I show it because so far the tiny subclade of H1 parallels the distribution of H2, and it makes sense that it too may have been on the steppe.   Notice that both Celtic and Germanic migrations should have brought R1a and anything that follows its distribution, like H2, to England.   

Indo-European steppe people didn't get around in boats.   They got around a little differently.  (Screenshots from "The Celts")

Maps of Kurgan hypothesis, one of the theories of Indo-European spread;  2nd photo map of spread of the

chariot, an Indo-European light cart and war vehicle.  Typically pre-existing people in areas invaded by Indo-Europeans

refused to adopt the chariot or were slow to adopt it, including in Egypt, and if they did adopt it, as in

Palestine it would be substandard.  One can clearly see that Celts spread the chariot in western Europe.    


These weren't barbarians; the steppe peoples actually had the most technologically and artistically sophisticated culture of Eurasia.   Their territory bordered on all of the southern civilizations, and also on the sites of earliest metalworking.     They conducted trade across the steppes.   They always had the latest technology.   The shaft hole battle axe people are named for technologically superior stone battle axes that were constructed like the first metal battle axes.   Their technology and especially their metalworking skill surpassed that of Greece and Rome, and their oral literary traditions and their art were superior.   They lived a bit roughly on the steppes, in tents or rough semi-subterranean log cabins, though their chiefs were buried with unimaginable wealth and many beautiful possessions.    But in Europe they lived in houses that rival the log cabins of the American colonies, with tables, beds, and chests.   


The birth of the Indo-European steppe culture occurred in 4400 BC, when people living north of the Black Sea tamed the horse and invented, or adopted from the German Rhineland, the wheeled cart.   This enabled Neolithic people to move onto the steppes.   It was very hard to grow crops on the steppes with Neolithic technology, but with horses the people became nomadic herdsmen.   This fundamentally changed their culture.   They became warriors, and with horses and technologically superior weapons easily invaded eastern and central Europe, as well as southeastern Europe, Anatolia, and Syria/ Palestine, where they took to the sea and were known as Sea Peoples.   The mother goddess-dominated agricultural religion of Europe and the Near East became a male sky-god dominated religion.   Ideas of dualism, such as light vs dark and spirit vs matter, developed that fundamentally shaped Christianity among other things.    


Notice that the Indo-Europeans originated in the same location as the Neolithic migration, and, separated by only several thousand years, had genetic similarities to the earlier migration and are not unlikely to have spoken similar languages.    Thus extensive controversy on who Indo-Europeans were and when they took over Europe.    

The Yamna culture most closely corresponds to the Kurgan hypothesis.   


The Yamna and Corded Ware (shaft hole battle axe people) were the early migrations of Indo-European peoples in Europe, from 3500 BC.  

Haplogroup R1a is an Indo-European marker.   It's spread is consistent with that of the northern steppe peoples (all Indo-European peoples but those who went south to the Near East before 2000 BC).   R1a was spread by the Corded Ware peoples and the later Indo-Europeans (which overlap).   

Early hunter/ gatherers - combware pottery immigrants to Finland and Sweden were most likely not haplogroup H1, since H1 spread with the Neolithic from southeastern Europe/ southwestern Asia, and these were hunter-gatherers.   The major immigration in Neolithic and Bronze Age times to Finland and eastern Sweden was the corded ware people - the proto-Indo-European shaft hole battle axe people.   The distribution of R1a shows their path.   

The corded ware and comb ceramic cultures merged to form the Kiukainen culture, from 2300 to 1500 BC.   After 1500 BC coastal Finland joined the Nordic Bronze age.   From that time to the present it got substantial immigration from Sweden.    

This suggests that our mitochondrial line ancestress lmay have ooked something like this:   

Shield Maiden of Rohan

or like this:


Proto-Celtic culture formed where the Indo-European culture intersected with the Atlantic coastal/ Spanish Bell Beaker culture, in central Europe.   The Celts proper were the result of an incursion of steppe people, possibly only small bands of princes with their retainers, just before 600 BC, who politically unified the Celtic people, probably ruling through a classical Indo-European network of closely interrelated royal families.   Like the proto-Celtic Urnfield culture, the Celts spread across northwestern Europe, France, parts of Spain, and Great Britain.   They actually spread farther; they held part of Anatolia and settled it in large numbers, and they had a particularly powerful and aggressive kingdom in Denmark, which sent an army to successfully attack the city of Rome.  However as relative latecomers the classical Celts did not spread across Ireland as the Urnfield people did; they were more confined to England and Scotland and more concentrated in certain geographical areas, such as southern England.    Glastonbury, Dorset, where the father of our Raymonds lived, was founded by the Celts, and is the legendary burial place of King Arthur.     

Celts are one way a mitochondrial lineage from the steppes could have reached southern England.   The Indo-European migrations encompassed Germany, Denmark, and the lowlands as well, and Denmark was in fact a Celtic kingdom at one point.   If our mitochondrial lineage came from the steppes, it could have reached southern England with the Urnfield people, the Celts, the Anglo-Saxons, or even the medieval Flemish migrations, as well as the migration  of tens of thousands of people from northwestern Europe during the Reformation.    The family of Thomas King of Shaftesbury, rich from the textile trade, lived as far afield as India, and was intermarrying with families of similar socio-economic status who were not strictly local, and Thomas himself was a Puritan, and of uncertain location between Shaftesbury and Sudbury Massachusetts.   Anne Tyce was almost certainly not the wife of Thomas King, but she was likely of Dutch background and living in Shaftesbury.     


The Phylo Tree

Robin McKie, The Face of Britain

Stephen Oppenheimer, The Origins of the British (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2006)

David Miles, The Tribes of Britain (London: Phoenix, 2006)

Origins, age, spread and ethnic association of European haplogroups and subclades  Eupedia.  A little strong on Indo-Europeans, who did spread to Europe from the same general area as the Neolithic migration.  

Wikipedia R1b Discussion on Origin and Dispersal.  Sources below:

  • Myres, Natalie (2010), "A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene effect in Central and Western Europe", European Journal of Human Genetics 19 (1), doi:10.1038/ejhg.2010.146,   This article gives the M269 clade the same age that Behar et al now give H1, from the same geographical location as H1's origin.
  • ^ Semino O. et al., Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P et al (2000). "The genetic legacy of paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective". Science 290 (5494): 1155–59. doi:10.1126/science.290.5494.1155. PMID 11073453. 
  • Balaresque et al.; Teteliutina, FK; Serebrennikova, GK; Starostin, SV; Churshin, AD; Rosser, Zoë H.; Goodwin, Jane; Moisan, Jean-Paul et al (2010). Penny, David. ed. "A Predominantly Neolithic Origin for European Paternal Lineages". PLoS Biol. 8 (1): 119–22. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1000285. PMC 2799514. PMID 20087410. 
  • ^ Sjödin, Per; François, Olivier (2011). Lalueza-Fox, Carles. ed. "Wave-of-Advance Models of the Diffusion of the Y Chromosome Haplogroup R1b1b2 in Europe". PLoS ONE 6 (6:e21592): e21592. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021592. 
  • B. Arredi, E. S. Poloni and C. Tyler-Smith (2007). "The peopling of Europe". In Crawford, Michael H.. Anthropological genetics: theory, methods and applications. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 394. ISBN 0-521-54697-4. 
  • ^ Chiaroni, J; Underhill, P; Cavalli-Sforza, L.L. (2009), "Y chromosome diversity, human expansion, drift and cultural evolution", PNAS 106 (48): 20174:20179,
  • Haak, Wolfgang et al.  Ancient DNA ffrom the first European farmers in 7500-year-old Neolithic sites.  Science (310) 11 Nov 2005 1016-9  They show that 25% of the 1st farmers were mitochondrial N1a, a Paleolithic clade.   However today the frequency of N1a is 150x lower than this, suggesting that the Paleolithic population was not genetically successful after the introduction of farming.   
  • Francois-Xavier Ricaut et al.  A time series of prehistoric mitochondrial DNA reveals western European genetic diversity was largely established by the Bronze Age.   Advances in Anthropology (2:1) 2012, 14-23.  Haplogroup H is not seen in Europe Paleolithic samples, only since the Neolithic.   Only U was seen in Paleolithic samples.    Ongoing decline in numbers of Paleolithic clades began at Neolithic.   "Farmers from the East introduced a suite of new mtDNA haplogroups into Western Europe."    
  • The Basques  their complex genetic and language history
  • How Middle Eastern Milk Drinkers Conquered Europe  Summarizes complex genetic history of the Landerakamic - northern branch of the Neolithic, showing that the Paleolithic population was still there but the Neolithic immigrants gained ground.

    Price, T. Douglas et al.   Prehistoric human migration in the Linearbandkeramic of Central Europe.    Argues that the Neolithic penetration of central Europe was incomplete with farmers existing alongside the Paleolithic population, and also that over time the Paleolithic people adopted agriculture and became absorbed.   (Above studies show they were more replaced.)

    Behar DM, van Oven M, Rosset, Metspalu M, Loogväli E-L, Silva NM, Kivisild T, Torroni A, Villems R. 2012b. A "Copernican" reassessment of the human mitochondrial DNA tree from its root. Am J Hum Genet 90(4):675-684.

    Behar DM, Harmant C, Manry J, van Oven M, Haak W, Martinez-Cruz B, Salaberria J, Oyharçabal B, Bauduer F, Comas D, Quintana-Murci L; The Genographic Consortium. 2012a. The Basque paradigm: genetic evidence of a maternal continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian region since pre-Neolithic times. Am J Hum Genet 90(3):486-493.

    Achilli A, Rengo C, Magri C, Battaglia V, Olivieri A, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Zeviani M, Briem E, Carelli V, Moral P, Dugoujon JM, Roostalu U, Loogväli EL, Kivisild T, Bandelt HJ, Richards M, Villems R, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Semino O, Torroni A: The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool. Am J Hum Genet 2004, 75:910-918   Their estimate of the age of H1 is actually 11,000 years - 9,000 BC.   Same H3.   V has a smiliar age.   (V has a smiliar place in the R0 phylotree.)   Therefore the Franco-Cantbrain refuse was the source of THE late-glacial expansions that repopulated much of central and Northern Europe from 15,000 years ago.    Ignores the multiple evidence, some of which is their own argument, that these clades did not EXIST 15,000 years ago.   

    Timing and deciphering mitochondrial DNA macro-haplogroup R0 variability in Central Europe and Middle East  Anita Brandstätter1,2, Bettina Zimmermann1, Janine Wagner1,3, Tanja Göbel1,4, Alexander W Röck5, Antonio Salas6, Angel Carracedo6 and Walther Parson  BMC Evolutionary Biology    Once again H1 originated in the Spanish refugium during the last ice age; however, grandparent clade R0 is only 17,000 years old and from central Asia.   They do seem to get haplogroup H older than its parent clade, and H1a older than H1.   

    Neolithic expansions:  how the European foragers were assimilated.    Dienekes' Antropology Blog.   83% (19 of 23) of hunterer gatherers analyzed to date carry mtdna's belonging to haplogroup U and none haplogroup H.   "Haplogroup U has been found in only 13 of 105 (12%) of individuals from early farming cultures of Europe and it occurrs in less than 21% of modern Europeans, while haplogroup H comprises between 25% and 37% of mtDNAs retrieved from early farming cultures and is in about 30% of contemporary Europeans.   mtDNA data suggest that pre-Neolithic populations were largely replaced by Neolithic farming groups and maximum mtDNA contribution of 20% from pre-Neolithic hunter-gatherers."   Haplogroup H increased exponentially around 5000 BC.   

    Pre-Neolithic Basque mtDNA gene pool (?) Dienekes' Anthropology Blog  Questions the liklihood of Behar's insistence that an 8,000 YBP estimate of separation for haplogroup H1 could possibly be consistent with genetic continuity of H1 from the Paleolithic/ Mesolithic settlers of the Franco-Cantabrian region.   Dniekie finds this date far more consistent with spread by Neolithic migration.   

    Haplogroup H1 and H3 entered Europe during neolithic  Eupedia forum

    Could mtDNA help with R1b datation?   David Faux, Jun 2 2008.  Comment by David Faux on DNA Genealogy list that "H1 and H3 have long been thought to have "accompanied" R1b on his journey westerard across Europe".  He and Jiri Pavlic suggested comparing the MCRAs of the two haplogroups.   

    Martin Richard and Vincent Macaulay, Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool, 2000.  Cited in post to Genealogy-DNA list in 2003.   Dates haplogroup H from 15,000 BC in the Middle East.   

    Our European graphical blocks for lactose tolerance   Post by Richard Stevens to Genealogy-DNA list in 2009, about Shennan and Edinborough paper, "Prehistoric population
    history: from the Late Glacial to the Late Neolithic in Central and Northern Europe", only available by purchase.    A radical population decline followed the Neolithic LBK, dropping population levels to very low levels.   Possibly the LBK didn't leave a whole lot of genetic trace in Europe.    LBK agricultural technology may have died out as well.    

    Roostalu, U.  Origin and expansion of haplogroup H.   Molecular Biology and Evolution (24:2); 436-448.   Haplogroup H coalesced in the Caucasus - Ural - Black Sea region.  In parts of this area it is still 10 - 30% of the population.   (This is the same region where R1b1 developed; it likely occupied the Near East and Middle East as well as Mesopotamia during the last ice age, to the degree possible.  Parts of the region were desert.)    Some clades coalesced in the Middle East.  H6 coalesced in the eastern part of the range - Caucasus.   H2 is the second most common haplogroup H clade in Finland and is not uncommon in the Caucasus.

    Loogli, Roostalu, et al.   Disuniting uniformity: a pied cladistic canvas of mtDNA Haplogroup H in Eurasia.   H2a is more common in eastern than western Europe - 6.5% and 1/1%.   H2a extends into Central Asia.  MImics to some degree phylogeography of Y chromosome Hg R1a.   (Yet the Cambridge Reference Sequence, from a baby born in Cambridge, England, is H2a2, and this is an important German clade.  St. Luke Motif - Celtic, found from Galacia to Scotland, is H2a2. 3888 subclade.)    

    Malstrom, Helena.  Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between Neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.   Current Biology 19, 1758-1762, Nov 3 2009.   Compares mitochondrial dna of skeletons from pitted ware culture, the last hunting and gathering population of Scandinavia, with Neolithic finds.   Samples from southern Sweden.   Pitted ware people were haplogroup U, no H.   Haplogroup H, J and T were the haplotypes of most of the farmers.   However the Pitted Ware people were geneticall similar to modern people in the eastern Baltic.